An important part of endodontic diagnosis and treatment is the adequate visualization of root canal anatomy. The objective of the present study was to compare two different three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems, Scanora 3D and 3D Accuitomo 170, with respect to their visualization of endodontic canal systems and potential pathological alterations. Seventy extracted human teeth were investigated with regard to the radiographic detection of number of root canals, lateral canals, root canal fillings and posts, vertical root fractures, and the occurrence of image artifacts. For each evaluation parameter under investigation the radiographic diagnoses obtained by the two different CBCT systems under investigation were similarly accurate, without statistically significant differences. The evaluation of teeth containing high-density foreign materials was impaired for both CBCT systems because of image artifacts. However, a difference between the CBCT systems was not observed. In conclusion, both CBCT systems were found to be similarly suitable for the visualization of endodontic structures in vitro.

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