The aim of the present study was to summarize the risk factors for bruxism that were identified by a systematic search of the literature published between 2007 and 2016. Depending on the size of the odds ratios (ORs) and the lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals indicated by the reports, four risk categories were differentiated. Among others, emotional stress, consumption of tobacco, alcohol, or coffee, sleep apnea syndrome, and anxiety disorders were recognized as important factors among adults. In children and adolescents, apart from distress, behavioral abnormalities and sleep disturbances predominated. Knowledge of the identified risk factors may be useful when taking the medical history of bruxing patients. Although many of the described variables cannot be influenced by prophylactic or therapeutic means, we recommend the following patient-centered approach («SMS-therapy»): Self-observation, muscle relaxation, stabilization (Michigan) splint.

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